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 PHYSICS GENERAL CHEMISTRY ORGANIC CHEMISTRY BIOCHEMISTRY CALCULUS BIOLOGY

PHYSICS

 GENERAL CHEMISTRY
 Video descriptions Document descriptions Chemistry: “Ratio units” video Chemistry: “Scientific notation”. Scientific notation. How to convert numbers in scientific notation into regular notation, and how to convert numbers in regular notation into scientific notation. How to interpret and compare numbers written in scientific notation. The concept of "orders of magnitude". How to use scientific notation on a calculator. How to do calculations involving scientific notation without a calculator video Chemistry: “Stoichiometry”. Chemistry: Stoichiometry. Converting between grams and moles. The mole; Avogadro's number. Converting between moles and molecules. Converting between grams of one molecule and grams of another molecule, using the stoichiometric coefficients from the balanced chemical equation video Sources of equivalence statements document Chemistry: “Stoichiometry. Atoms, molecules, moles”.  Stoichiometry. Atoms and molecules. Unit conversion, metric prefixes, equivalence statements. Atomic mass unit (amu), mole, Avogadro's number, molar mass. Converting between grams and moles; converting between grams and atoms or molecules video Problem discussed in the videos document Conversion factors discussed in the videos document Sources of equivalence statements document Chemistry: “Stoichiometry. ICE tables. Limiting reagent”.  Stoichiometry. Balancing chemical equations. Initial-change-end (ICE) tables. Using stoichiometric calculations to determine the amounts of reactants and products. Limiting reagent video Chemistry: “Stoichiometry problems”. Stoichiometry problems. Atomic mass of naturally occurring isotopes. “Mixture problems” video Problems discussed in the videos document Chemistry: “Mass spectrometry problems”.  Stoichiometry problems involving mass spectrometry video Problems discussed in the videos document Chemistry: “Heat, temperature, and phase change”. Heat, temperature, and phase change. Specific heat. Heat of fusion and heat of vaporization video Table of specific heats document Table of heats of fusion and vaporization document Chemistry: “Calorimetry”. Calorimetry. Specific heat and heat capacity. Bomb calorimetry. Coffee-cup calorimetry video Chemistry: "Colligative properties". Colligative properties. Boiling point elevation. Freezing point depression. Vapor pressure lowering; Raoult's law. Osmotic pressure video Chemistry: “Chemical bonding: energy vs. distance graph”.  Graph of energy vs. internuclear distance; chemical bonding, bond length, and bond energy video Chemistry: “Equilibrium. Le Châtelier’s Principle”.  Chemical equilibrium. Reaction quotient (Q). Equilibrium constant (K). Le Châtelier’s principle video Equilibrium and completion reactions document Chemistry: “Acids and bases. Calculating pH. Titrations”.  Acids and bases. Calculating pH and pOH. Water autoionization; water ion-product constant (Kw). Acid dissociation constant (Ka). Buffer solutions; Henderson-Hasselbach equation. Titrations; equivalence point; half-equivalence point video Types of acid/base problems document Problems discussed in the videos document Chemistry: “Buffer solutions. Logarithms”.  Qualitative introduction to buffer solutions (acid/base chemistry). How to approximate logarithms and pHs without a calculator. video Chemistry: “Buffers. The Henderson-Hasselbach equation”. How to solve quantitative problems about buffer solutions using the Henderson-Hasselbach equation (acid/base chemistry) video Problem discussed in the videos document Chemistry: “Calculating pH for acid-base titrations”.  Calculating pH at various points on a titration curve. Titration of a strong acid with a strong base--vertical intercept; left of equivalence point; equivalence point; right of equivalence point. Titration of a weak acid with a strong base—vertical intercept; half-equivalence point; equivalence point; right of equivalence point. How to do titration calculations without a calculator video Types of acid/base problems document Chemistry: “Solubility product (Ksp) and molar solubility”.  Dissolution and precipitation reactions. Solubility product (Ksp) and ion product (Q). Application of ICE tables to dissolution reactions. Molar solubility. How to find the solubility from the Ksp; how to find the Ksp from the solubility. Common ion effect video Solubility document Chemistry: “Photoelectric effect”.  Energy, frequency, and wavelength of photons. Photoelectric effect video Problems discussed in the videos document Chemistry: “Bohr model problems”.  Problems involving the Bohr model of electronic transitions for the hydrogen atom and other one-electron species video Problems discussed in the videos document Chemistry: “Quantum numbers” video Problems discussed in the videos document Chemistry: “Kinetics--rate laws from experimental data”.  Chemical kinetics. Determining the rate law from experimental data through the method of initial rates. Exponents, rate constant, units for the rate constant. Order of the reaction video Chemistry: “Differential and integrated rate laws”.  Chemical kinetics. Differential rate laws. Method of initial rates. Rate constant; order of the reaction. Zero-order, first-order, and second-order integrated rate laws. video Problems discussed in the videos document Table discussed in the videos document Chemistry: “Chemical kinetics. Reaction mechanisms”.  Chemical kinetics. Reaction mechanisms. Elementary steps; molecularity (unimolecular, bimolecular, termolecular). Rate laws for the overall reaction and for elementary steps. Rate-determining step. Mechanisms with slow first steps. Mechanisms with fast forward and reverse first steps video Chemistry: “Arrhenius equation. Activation energy”.  Chemical kinetics. Arrhenius equation. Logarithms. Activation energy. Reaction energy diagram. Transition state. Catalysis video Logarithm properties document Chemistry: “Balancing redox reactions”.  Electrochemistry. Oxidation and reduction. Oxidizing agent and reducing agent. Oxidation number, also known as oxidation state. Balancing oxidation-reduction reactions, also known as redox reactions, using the half-reaction method in acidic and basic solutions video Redox reactions document Chemistry: “Electrochemistry and electrochemical cells”.  Electrochemistry and electrochemical cells. Oxidation and reduction; oxidizing agents vs. reducing agents. Galvanic/voltaic cells. Cathode, anode. Free energy and cell potential. Half-reactions; reduction potentials, oxidation potentials. Salt bridge. Calculating cell potential. Faraday's constant. Work. Equilibrium constant. Nernst equation. Electrolytic cells video Problem discussed in the videos document Table discussed in the videos document Chemistry: “More on electrochemical cells”.  Electrochemistry and electrochemical cells. Anode vs. cathode; oxidation vs. reduction; reduction potentials, oxidation potentials, and cell potentials; electron flow; positive and negative electrodes for galvanic vs. electrolytic cells video Chemistry: “Molecular orbital model”.  Molecular orbital model of covalent bonding. Molecular orbital (MO) energy-level diagrams. Sigma and pi molecular orbitals; bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals; bond order; paramagnetism and diamagnetism. Bonding in homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules video Figure discussed in the videos document Chemistry: “Transition metals and isomerism”.  Transition metals and isomerism. Transition metal electron configurations for neutral atoms and cations. Coordination compounds; oxidation number and coordination number. Coordination isomers; linkage isomers. Structural isomers vs. stereoisomers. Geometric isomers. Optical isomers video Chemistry: “More on transition metals and isomerism”. Transition metals and coordination compounds. Electron configurations for neutral and cation transition metals. Coordination number; oxidation number. Bidentate ligands; ethylenediamine (“en”). Complex ion geometries (octahedral, square planar, tetrahedral, linear). Isomerism. Geometric isomers; cis and trans. Optical isomers; enantiomers. video Tables discussed in the videos document Chemistry: “Nomenclature for coordination compounds”.  Nomenclature for transition metal coordination compounds video Tables discussed in the videos document Chemistry: “Transition metals and the crystal field model”.  Transition metals and the crystal field model. Strong-field case and weak-field case; low-spin case and high-spin case; paramagnetism and diamagnetism; spectrochemical series; colors of complex ions. The localized electron model of bonding in complex ions, also known as the valence bond model video Figures discussed in the videos document Chemistry: “Kinetics of radioactive decay. Half-life”. Nuclear chemistry. Kinetics of radioactive decay. Decay constant; rate of decay (“activity”). Half-life. Integrated rate law for radioactive decay and other key equations video Problems discussed in the videos document Nuclear chemistry document Logarithm properties document Chemistry: “Nuclear chemistry. Binding energy”.  Nuclear chemistry. Atomic number, mass number. Mass defect and binding energy video Nuclear chemistry document Chemistry: “IUPAC alkane nomenclature”. Introductory organic chemistry topics from the perspective of a general chemistry course. IUPAC alkane nomenclature. Bond-line notation. How to draw all the structural isomers of a compound. Common names for branched substituents: isopropyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl. Naming cyclic alkanes video

 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

BIOCHEMISTRY

 Video descriptions Document descriptions Biochemistry: “Acids and bases”.  Acids and bases. Logarithms. Water autoionization. pH and pOH. Conjugate pairs. Ka and pKa. Strong acid problems. Strong base problems. Weak acid problems. Buffer solutions; the Henderson-Hasselbach equation. Weak acid plus conjugate base problems (i.e., buffer problems). Predicting the major form of an acid or base by comparing pH and pKa video Acids and bases handout document Homework problems for video (2) document Homework problems for video (4) document Biochemistry: “Amino acids”.  Amino acids. How to determine the net charge on an amino acid at a given pH. Determining the net charge for amino acids with acidic or basic side chains video Amino acids handout document Homework problems for video (2) document Biochemistry: “Protein structure”.  Protein structure. Drawing protein chains. Peptide bonds. How to determine the net charge of a peptide chain at different pH’s. Primary structure. Weak interactions; electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonds, Van der Waals interactions. Hydrophobic effect. Disulfide bonds. Secondary structure; the alpha helix, beta-pleated sheets. Alpha-keratin. Collagen. Tertiary structure. Quaternary structure video Acids and bases handout document Amino acids handout document Homework problems for video (1) document Homework problems for video (2) document Homework problems for video (3) document Homework problems for video (4) document Homework problems for video (5) document Biochemistry: “Protein sequencing problems”.  Protein sequencing problems, i.e., the determination of the primary structure of a peptide. Hydrolysis. Dansyl chloride. Proteolytic enzymes. Trypsin. Chymotrypsin. Circular peptides. Thermolysin. Disulfide bonds. Carboxypeptidase. Cyanogen bromide video Homework problems for video (1) document Homework problems for video (2) document Biochemistry: "Protein separation and purification". Protein purification and separation. Gel electrophoresis; SDS-PAGE. Salting in and salting out; dialysis. Gel filtration (i.e., size exclusion) chromatography. Ion exchange chromatography video

CALCULUS

 Video descriptions Document descriptions Calculus: “Basic differentiation rules”. Derivatives of power functions, constant functions, polynomials, root functions, and the natural exponential function (ex) video Calculus: “Product and quotient rules for differentiation”. The product and quotient rules for differentiation. Derivatives of trigonometric functions video Calculus: “Position, velocity, and acceleration”.  How to use derivatives to answer questions about one-dimensional motion. Position, velocity, and acceleration video Calculus: “The chain rule” video Calculus: “Equation of the tangent line to a function”.  How to use the derivative of a function at a point to find the equation of the tangent line to the function at that point video Calculus: “Implicit differentiation”.  “dy/dx” notation for derivatives. Applying the chain rule using dy/dx notation. Implicit differentiation video Calculus: “Second derivatives” video Calculus: “Derivatives of natural logarithms (ln x)” video Calculus: “Derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions” video Calculus: “Derivatives of general exponential and logarithmic functions”.  Derivatives of general exponential functions (ax). Derivatives of general logarithmic functions (log x) video Calculus: “Logarithmic differentiation” video Calculus: “Percentage growth rates. Elasticity of demand”.  Calculating the percentage growth rate; calculating the percentage growth rate using a logarithmic derivative. Elasticity of demand; relation between elasticity of demand and revenue video Problems discussed in the videos document Calculus: “Critical numbers. Absolute maximums and minimums on a closed interval”.  Local maximums and minimums; absolute maximums and minimums. Critical numbers. The "closed interval method" for finding absolute maximums and minimums video Calculus: “How derivatives affect the shape of a graph”.  Using the first derivative to determine where the graph of a function is increasing or decreasing. Using the second derivative to determine where the graph of a function is concave up or concave down. The First Derivative Test and Second Derivative Test for local maximums and minimums video Calculus: “L'Hospital's rule”.  L'Hospital's rule. Indeterminate forms: 0/0, ∞/∞, and 0×∞. Review of the algebra of fractions video Calculus: “Optimization problems”.  Optimization problems video Calculus: “Antiderivatives”.  Antiderivatives. Antiderivatives of constant functions, power functions, cosine functions, sine functions, natural exponential functions, root functions, some rational functions, and inverse trigonometric functions; the antiderivative of 1/x. The constant multiple rule for antiderivatives; the sum rule for antiderivatives. Determining the constants in an antiderivative. Finding the position function from the velocity function video Homework problems for video (3) document Calculus: “Definite integrals. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, Part 1”.  The graphical interpretation of definite integrals. Using the graphical interpretation to calculate definite integrals. The “area so far” function. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, Part 1 video Homework problems for video (2) document Calculus: “Definite integrals and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, Part 2”. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, Part 2. Using the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, Part 2, to calculate definite integrals by using antiderivatives video Calculus: “Indefinite integrals and definite integrals”.  Indefinite integrals. Rules for indefinite integrals. The indefinite integrals of sec x tan x and of sec2 x. Evaluating definite and indefinite integrals—practice problems video Calculus: “Finding displacement and distance from velocity”.  How to use definite integrals to determine displacement and distance from the velocity function video Calculus: “Area. Riemann sums. Definite integrals”.  Area. Riemann sums. Definition of the definite integral as a limit of Riemann sums. Expressing a definite integral as a limit of Riemann sums. Evaluating a definite integral by interpreting it in terms of areas. This video series covers how to express a definite integral as a limit of Riemann sums. The series does not cover how to evaluate a definite integral as a limit of Riemann sums. video Some problems discussed in video (2) document Problem discussed in video (3) document Homework problems for video (3) document Calculus: “The Substitution Method for integration”.  How to evaluate indefinite integrals using the Substitution Method video Homework problems for video (1) document Homework problems for video (2) document Calculus: “First-semester calculus final exam review”.  First-semester calculus final exam review session. Evaluating a limit. Quotient Rule for derivatives. Chain rule. Implicit differentiation. A 57th-order derivative. L'Hôpital's rule. Minimizing a function (First Derivative and Second Derivative Tests). Newton's method. Substitution method for integration; substitution method for definite integrals. Determining constants of integration. Differentiation under the integral sign using Leibniz’s rule; differentiation under the integral sign using the First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus and the Chain Rule. Calculating the volume of solids of revolution using the “disk/washer” method; calculating the volume of solids of revolution using the method of cylindrical shells. Average value of a function video Problems discussed in the videos document

BIOLOGY

 Video descriptions Document descriptions Biology: “Mendelian genetics”.  Mendelian genetics. A Mendelian genetics problem, using a Punnett square. Law of segregation. Law of independent assortment. Exception to the law of independent assortment: linked genes. Crossing over. Wild type vs. mutant phenotype (Morgan notation); true-breeding plants video Problems discussed in the videos document Biology: “Angiosperm reproduction”.  Reproduction in angiosperms (flowering plants). The parts of a flower. Formation of male and female gametophytes (pollen grain and embryo sac). Pollination. Double fertilization. Germination video Biology: “Plant hormones”. Plant hormones. Auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, brassinosteroids, abscisic acid, ethylene video Biology: “Signal transduction pathways for the greening response”.  Signal transduction pathways for the greening response in plants. The roles of phytochrome, G-proteins, cGMP, protein kinases, and calcium ions video Biology: “Mammalian digestive system”.  Mammalian digestive system. Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Glucose regulation as an example of homeostasis; insulin and glucagon video

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